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Nathan Hale

Nathan Hale


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Nathan Hale nació en Coventry, Connecticut y se educó en Yale. Se ofreció como voluntario para el servicio en el estallido de la Guerra de Independencia, participó en el asedio de Boston y fue ascendido al rango de capitán. Tras la expulsión del Ejército Continental de Long Island, se sintió una necesidad urgente de información sobre las actividades británicas en Nueva York. A mediados de septiembre de 1776, Hale se ofreció como voluntario para intentar asegurar esa inteligencia. Una mala planificación casi garantizó el fracaso de la misión desde el principio. Además, Hale se vio obstaculizado por la ausencia de contactos Patriot en la ciudad, la incapacidad de planificar una vía de escape efectiva y por la falta total de canales de comunicación confiables con el ejército estadounidense. Quizás el mayor impedimento para el éxito fue la naturaleza de Hale. Se decía que Hale tenía un rostro atractivo, pero que mostraba evidencia de quemaduras de pólvora que lo hicieron fácil de identificar. A pesar de las dudas de sus amigos, Hale partió del Ejército Continental en Harlem Heights y viajó a Norwalk, Connecticut. Cabe señalar que los oficiales británicos estaban especialmente preocupados por los espías en este momento debido a los recientes incendios que habían devastado la ciudad y se pensaba que habían sido provocados por agentes rebeldes.Hale fue ahorcado a la mañana siguiente y su cuerpo quedó en exhibición como advertencia a la comunidad. La mayoría de los relatos tradicionales de su ejecución citan las palabras: "Solo lamento tener una vida que perder por mi país", como la última. Esta paráfrasis de una línea del escritor británico Joseph Addison Catón, una obra de teatro representada con frecuencia en Estados Unidos, fue citada por un testigo del evento. Otro notó la conducta digna de Hale, pero no mencionó esas palabras específicas. Otro tema de cierta controversia es la identidad de la persona que nombró a Hale como espía. Recientemente, sin embargo, la Biblioteca del Congreso obtuvo un relato contemporáneo de estos eventos escrito por Considere Tiffany, un comerciante y leal de Connecticut. En esta interpretación se señala con el dedo a Robert Rogers, un héroe de la guerra francesa e india cuyas simpatías más tarde fueron claramente con los británicos. Se dice que descubrió que Hale era un maestro poco convincente y lo atrajo a su propia traición, pretendiendo ser un espía patriota.


Nathan Hale - Historia

A principios del verano de 1776, los británicos evacuaron Boston dejando la ciudad y Nueva Inglaterra a los colonialistas rebeldes. ¿Dónde atacarían los británicos después? El misterio se resolvió cuando una fuerza naval británica apareció frente a la costa de Staten Island a fines de junio; Nueva York sería su objetivo. La ciudad tenía un gran valor estratégico. Su puerto profundo podría albergar a la flota británica y su captura allanaría el camino para la Red. Abrigos para luchar hacia el norte por el Hudson y unirse con una fuerza que se mueve hacia el sur desde Canadá. Esto separaría a Nueva Inglaterra del resto de las colonias.

A finales de junio, los británicos ocuparon Staten Island en un desembarco sin oposición de los coloniales. A finales de agosto, una fuerza combinada de tropas británicas y de Hesse cruzó la bahía de Nueva York e invadió Long Island. Los británicos atacaron a los estadounidenses desde dos lados, lo que obligó a los coloniales a cruzar a la isla de Manhattan. A principios de septiembre, el general Washington se retiró de nuevo, esta vez a través del río Harlem dejando la ciudad de Nueva York a los británicos.

Nathan Hale era teniente del Ejército Continental. A los veinte años, Hale había trabajado como maestro de escuela antes de la Revolución. A finales de septiembre de 1776 se ofreció como voluntario para cruzar las líneas británicas y viajar a Long Island con el fin de reunir información de inteligencia. Desafortunadamente, su misión pronto fue descubierta y fue capturado por los británicos. Llevado al cuartel general del general Howe (comandante de las fuerzas británicas) en Nueva York, el joven espía fue interrogado y ejecutado el 22 de septiembre. Un oficial británico que portaba una bandera de tregua trajo noticias de la ejecución al cuartel general del general Washington. El Capitán William Hull del Ejército Continental estuvo presente y recordó el evento:

`` A los pocos días llegó un oficial a nuestro campamento, bajo una bandera de tregua, e informó a Hamilton, entonces capitán de artillería, pero luego con la ayuda del general Washington, que el capitán Hale había sido arrestado dentro de las líneas británicas condenado como espía, y ejecutado esa mañana.

Me enteré de los detalles melancólicos de este oficial, que estuvo presente en su ejecución y parecía conmovido por las circunstancias que la acompañaron.

Dijo que el Capitán Hale había pasado por su ejército, tanto de Long Island como de York Island. Que había adquirido bocetos de las fortificaciones y había escrito memorandos sobre su número y diferentes posiciones. Cuando fue detenido, fue llevado ante Sir William Howe, y estos documentos, que se encontraron ocultos sobre su persona, delataron sus intenciones. Inmediatamente declaró su nombre, rango en el ejército estadounidense y su objetivo de entrar dentro de las líneas británicas.

La ejecución de Nathan Hale
Sir William Howe, sin la forma de un juicio, ordenó su ejecución a la mañana siguiente. Fue puesto bajo la custodia del Mariscal Provost, quien era un refugiado y endurecido ante el sufrimiento humano y todo sentimiento de ablandamiento del corazón. El capitán Hale, solo, sin simpatía ni apoyo, salvo que desde arriba, al acercarse la muerte, pidió a un clérigo que lo atendiera. Fue rechazado. Luego pidió una Biblia que también fue rechazada por su inhumano carcelero.

—La mañana de su ejecución —continuó el oficial—, mi puesto estaba cerca del lugar de la muerte y le pedí al mariscal preboste que permitiera que el prisionero se sentara en mi marquesina mientras él hacía los preparativos necesarios. Entró el capitán Hale: estaba tranquilo y se comportaba con gentil dignidad, consciente de la rectitud y las altas intenciones. Me pidió material de escritura, que le proporcioné: escribió dos cartas, una a su madre y otra a un hermano oficial. Poco después lo llamaron a la horca. Pero algunas personas estaban a su alrededor, sin embargo, sus características moribundas fueron recordadas. Dijo: 'Solo lamento tener una vida que perder por mi país' ''.

Referencias:
Campbell, Maria Hall, Servicios revolucionarios y vida civil del general William Hull preparado a partir de sus manuscritos. (1848) (Reimpreso en Commager, Henry Steele y Richard Morris, The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six, 1958).


Novelas gráficas

Tacos asesinos mutantes, Rapunzel en el Viejo Oeste, el Flautista en un desolado paisaje posapocalíptico: las novelas gráficas pueden hacer que las historias antiguas parezcan nuevas y extrañas.

"Hale se deleita positivamente con la rareza de su premisa. La paleta de naranja de dos colores que utiliza se suma a la sensación surrealista de las ilustraciones... Una mezcla bien equilibrada de ciencia ficción, terror y humor".

"Perfecto para los fanáticos de la ficción extraña, con un estilo visual que atraerá a los fanáticos de los cómics de terror".

"Hale lo ha vuelto a hacer: otra novela gráfica que ofrece una combinación fantástica de lo inquietante y lo humorístico que cautivará a los nuevos lectores y deleitará a los fanáticos dedicados".

"Hale imbuye lo último en patetismo, acción y momentos de comedia perfectamente sincronizados, pero es el paisaje imaginativo, el ritmo visual preciso y el trabajo de línea seguro lo que hace que esta historia de aventuras sea realmente emocionante".

"Los propios alienígenas son visualmente excepcionales: enormes, glotones y exudan privilegios tanto en sus acciones como en sus presentaciones físicas".

(Boletín del Centro de libros infantiles)

"Ambientada en una tierra que combina elementos de la Edad de Piedra y tecnología muy avanzada, esta aventura de novela gráfica presenta la misma mezcla de humor y extravagancia que hace que 'Hazardous Tales' de Hale sea tan popular".

"Hale combina la aventura, los extraterrestres, un futuro apocalíptico y el folclore en una versión independiente fácil de leer".

"La historia combina una trama de ciencia ficción emocionante con personajes adolescentes con los pies en la tierra. El verdadero atractivo de la obra es el uso de diferentes tipos de líneas que se utilizan para crear texturas, proporcionar atmósfera y representar personajes".

(Conexión de la biblioteca escolar)

"Con un elenco atractivo y racialmente diverso, esta aventura épica de alto riesgo debería tener un gran atractivo. Hale pastorea esta compleja narrativa con la misma mano segura que su serie de novelas gráficas de historias reales de la historia".

"Las ilustraciones de Hale están texturizadas y visualmente hacen avanzar la historia, mientras que su historia original combina sin esfuerzo extraterrestres, aventuras y diversión apocalíptica".

"Si bien es maravillosamente conciso, aún se las arregla para exprimir un montón de suspenso, escalofríos (aunque nada que induzca a una pesadilla), acción y dinámicas de personajes entretenidas, todo dentro de una versión refrescantemente original de los infiernos posapocalípticos".

(Reseña del libro del New York Times)

Escrito por el poderoso dúo Shannon y Dean Hale (sin relación), ¡esta es Rapunzel como nunca la has visto! Ilustraciones a todo color de Nathan Hale.

El diálogo es ingenioso, la historia es una tentadora desviación del original y las ilustraciones son mágicamente divertidas y expresivas. Saber que hay más novelas gráficas por venir de este equipo de escritores trae a los lectores su propio felices para siempre.

–Biblioteca Pública de Nueva York (reseña destacada)

Rica en humor y emoción, esta es una versión alternativa de un clásico que se convertirá rápidamente en el favorito de los lectores jóvenes.

¡Rapunzel ha vuelto y también Jack! ¡La secuela de Rapunzel's Revenge de Shannon y Dean Hale!

"La obra de arte de Nathan Hale coloca nuevamente la acción en una versión de cuento de hadas del oeste estadounidense, ahora con la ciudad como telón de fondo. Los bocetos de sus personajes son deliciosamente expresivos y el libro tiene la misma paleta rica que la historia anterior. Debería satisfacer a los lectores que disfrutan de la aventura, los cuentos de hadas y cualquiera que ame a un pícaro ".

"144 páginas de narración desgarradora en las que el cuento de hadas familiar se extiende enormemente, reuniendo en su barrido todo tipo de ecos del Lejano Oeste y películas de superhéroes, así como otros cuentos de hadas"


Por qué recordamos a Nathan Hale (y nadie ha oído hablar de Moses Dunbar)

Virginia DeJohn Anderson, profesora de historia en la Universidad de Colorado en Boulder, es autora de El mártir y el traidor: Nathan Hale, Moses Dunbar y la revolución estadounidense Criaturas del imperio: cómo los animales domésticos transformaron los primeros Estados Unidos y la generación de Nueva Inglaterra: la gran migración y la formación de la sociedad y la cultura en el siglo XVII.

Aunque no fue ni una figura militar prominente ni un padre fundador, Nathan Hale es recordado como un héroe revolucionario estadounidense. Decenas de escuelas en todo el país llevan su nombre. Las estatuas de Hale salpican el paisaje nacional. Hay al menos siete en su Connecticut natal, otros se pueden ver en Nueva York, Washington DC, Chicago, St. Paul y en la sede de la Agencia Central de Inteligencia en Langley, Virginia. Desde mediados del siglo XIX, numerosos libros y obras de teatro han contado la historia de Hale para audiencias de todas las edades.

Este esfuerzo extraordinario recuerda a un hombre conocido no por su vida sino por su muerte o, más precisamente, por las palabras que pronunció justo antes de morir. El 22 de septiembre de 1776, cuando estaba a punto de ser ahorcado en un campamento del ejército británico en la ciudad de Nueva York, Hale declaró: "Lo único que lamento es tener una vida que perder por mi país". Hale eligió sus palabras con cuidado, pero no podría haber imaginado que reverberarían durante más de dos siglos en una nación que apenas tenía dos meses en el momento de su ejecución. El condenado tenía muchas más razones para suponer que no sería recordado en absoluto.

Pocos estadounidenses que reconocen el nombre de Nathan Hale saben que solo tenía 21 años cuando murió. Vivió la gran mayoría de su breve vida como súbdito británico, no como patriota estadounidense. Como estudiante de la Universidad de Yale, se esforzó por adquirir el conocimiento cultural y los modales educados de un caballero inglés. Ese esfuerzo, de hecho, lo expuso al drama tremendamente popular del dramaturgo británico Joseph Addison, Catón, un pasaje del que Hale parafrasearía como su declaración final. Su prematura muerte se produjo no como resultado del valor en el campo de batalla, sino por una misión de espionaje fallida que muchos contemporáneos consideraban deshonrosa.

Sin embargo, ninguno de estos hechos biográficos importa cuando se trata de conmemorar a Nathan Hale. En cambio, su reputación como mártir revolucionario se basa en sus elocuentes palabras finales. Les recuerdan a los estadounidenses el autosacrificio patriótico de los valientes individuos que lucharon por la independencia de la nación, así como de aquellos que, en las generaciones venideras, han luchado con igual dedicación para defenderla.

Seis meses después de la ejecución de Hale, otro hombre de Connecticut murió en una soga del verdugo. Sin embargo, nadie recuerda a Moses Dunbar porque apoyó al bando equivocado de la Revolución. Condenado por un tribunal civil de traición contra el estado, Dunbar fue ejecutado en Hartford el 19 de marzo de 1777. Sin embargo, también vale la pena recordar su historia por lo que puede decirles a los estadounidenses sobre su Revolución.

Dunbar tenía 30 años cuando murió, a diferencia de Hale, dejó una esposa e hijos. Un granjero que luchaba, era un lealista reacio, impulsado hacia su lealtad política en buena parte por el comportamiento de sus vecinos. Años antes de que estallara la Revolución, Dunbar se unió a la Iglesia de Inglaterra, un movimiento inusual pero sin precedentes en una colonia dominada por congregacionalistas. Su afiliación religiosa quizás fortaleció su vínculo con el monarca que se desempeñó como jefe supremo de la Iglesia inglesa, aunque muchos colonos anglicanos (incluido George Washington) apoyaron fácilmente la causa estadounidense. Mucho más influyente fue la creencia de Dunbar de que las diferencias entre Gran Bretaña y las colonias deberían resolverse sin recurrir a las armas ni al derramamiento de sangre. Muchos de sus vecinos no estuvieron de acuerdo.

A medida que las animosidades políticas se intensificaron en 1774, los comités locales que apoyaban la causa estadounidense buscaron silenciar a sus oponentes, a menudo con violencia. Una multitud de hombres enojados se abalanzó sobre Moses Dunbar y lo golpeó tan severamente que temió por su vida. Otros miembros de su congregación anglicana, que se suponía que respaldaban al rey, fueron atacados de manera similar. Una vez que comenzó la guerra en abril de 1775, la polarización política alcanzó su cenit. Dunbar se ofreció a retirarse a su granja y permanecer neutral, pero la neutralidad ya no era posible.

Temiendo por su propia seguridad y la de su familia, Dunbar fue a la Nueva York ocupada por los británicos en septiembre de 1776 para alistarse en un regimiento leal para luchar en nombre de Inglaterra. Mientras estuvo allí, la legislatura de Connecticut aprobó una ley que declaraba que tal acto era un delito capital. Cuando Dunbar regresó a Connecticut para buscar a su esposa e hijos para llevarlos de regreso a Nueva York, fue arrestado. Los funcionarios locales habían recibido un aviso de uno de los vecinos de Dunbar, un compañero anglicano. Después del juicio, el padre separado de Dunbar supuestamente se ofreció a proporcionar la cuerda para colgar a su hijo.

Las palabras precisas de Moses Dunbar en la horca no se han conservado, pero un testigo ocular de su ejecución señaló que leyó en voz alta un pasaje del Libro de Job. Al identificarse con el hombre justo cuya fe perduró, a pesar de haber sido probada por terribles pruebas, Dunbar demostró que ninguno de los lados de la Revolución Americana tenía un monopolio por principio. Estaba tan plenamente convencido como lo había estado Nathan Hale de la nobleza de la causa por la que estaba a punto de morir.

Muchos estadounidenses prefieren centrarse en los ganadores de la Revolución, celebrando las virtudes republicanas ejemplificadas por Nathan Hale e ignorando las amargas divisiones dentro de las familias y comunidades que definieron la experiencia de Moses Dunbar. Sin embargo, esta versión unilateral de los acontecimientos oculta los orígenes mucho más polémicos de la nación y los efectos perniciosos de la polarización. Nathan Hale y Moses Dunbar fueron hombres honorables que siguieron sus conciencias para llegar a conclusiones opuestas sobre los méritos de la independencia estadounidense. Consideradas en conjunto, sus historias igualmente trágicas dan testimonio de las complejidades morales y políticas de la fundación de nuestra nación.


Nathan Hale - Historia

Nathan Hale pronunció una de las líneas más memorables en la historia de la Revolución Americana. Como soldado del Ejército Continental, Hale fue capturado durante una operación de inteligencia en la ciudad de Nueva York. Sobre la horca, supuestamente dijo: & # 8220Sólo lamento tener una vida que dar por mi país & # 8221. Ya sea que estas palabras sean textuales o no, Hale es considerado un héroe estadounidense por su dedicación a su país y su voluntad de hacer el máximo sacrificio en nombre de sus creencias.

Sus primeros años

Nathan Hale nació el sexto hijo de doce en Coventry, Connecticut el 6 de junio de 1755. Creció en la próspera granja de su familia hasta que se fue para asistir a la escuela en Yale 13 años después con su hermano mayor. Durante su inscripción, Hale perteneció a una fraternidad literaria, Linonia, que examinaba temas de actualidad como la ética de la esclavitud y otros temas académicos como la astronomía, la literatura y las matemáticas. Mientras estaba en Yale, Hale conoció y estudió con Benjamin Tallmadge, quien influiría significativamente en sus percepciones y decisiones más adelante en su vida.

Después de graduarse en 1773, Hale se convirtió en maestro de escuela en East Haddam, seguido de un destino en New London. Durante su mandato como maestro de escuela, Hale impartió clases regulares, pero también ofreció clases a las mujeres jóvenes de la ciudad. Durante sus días en la universidad, a menudo habló sobre la desigualdad en la educación entre hombres y mujeres. Cuando comenzó la Guerra Revolucionaria en 1775, Hale se unió a la milicia de Connecticut y fue elegido primer teniente. A pesar de su alistamiento, rango y servicio activo, Hale no participó en actividades de combate militar hasta 1776, aunque habló en nombre de la acción militar en reuniones comunitarias.

Tras la participación de su unidad en el Asedio de Boston, Hale, que no participó, recibió una carta de su antiguo compañero de clase, Tallmadge, el 4 de julio de 1775. En esta carta, Tallmadge animaba a Hale a convertirse en un miembro activo de la milicia. Debido a la naturaleza inspiradora de la carta, Hale aceptó una comisión como primer teniente en un regimiento estacionado en Stamford, Connecticut, bajo el mando del coronel Charles Webb.

Tras su alistamiento, el regimiento de Hale fue estacionado en New London antes de ser enviado a Cambridge. En Cambridge, el regimiento se adjuntó al ala izquierda del ejército comandado por el general George Washington el 14 de septiembre de 1775. Acampando al pie de Winter Hill, esta parte del ejército de Washington comandaba la ruta desde Charlestown, que era uno de los sólo dos caminos que los británicos podían utilizar para salir de Boston. El 30 de enero de 1776, el regimiento de Hale fue trasladado al ala derecha en Roxbury, donde participaron en acciones exitosas en marzo para expulsar a las tropas británicas de Boston.

La recogida de información

En la primavera de 1776, el Ejército Continental trasladó fuerzas a Manhattan para evitar que los británicos tomaran el control de la ciudad de Nueva York. El regimiento Hale & # 8217s fue una de las unidades asignadas a este esfuerzo bajo el mando de Washington. Washington buscó un voluntario para ir detrás de las líneas británicas y descubrir la ubicación de la invasión planeada. Hale, viendo la asignación como una oportunidad patriótica, se ofreció como voluntario el 8 de septiembre de 1776.

Unos días después, el 12 de septiembre, Hale cruzó las líneas enemigas disfrazado de maestro de escuela holandés, poniendo inmediatamente en peligro su vida. Como espía enemigo, su vida estaría perdida en caso de que las fuerzas británicas lo capturaran. La ciudad de Nueva York cayó el 15 de septiembre ante las fuerzas británicas y las tropas de Washington se retiraron al extremo norte de la isla de Manhattan. Hale permaneció en el extremo sur de la isla ocupado por los británicos.

El 21 de septiembre, el Gran Incendio de Nueva York de 1776 destruyó una cuarta parte de la parte baja de Manhattan. Después del incendio, los británicos arrestaron a casi 200 partisanos estadounidenses. Al mismo tiempo, Hale fue capturado en Flushing Bay cerca de Queens, Nueva York, mientras esperaba su cita de escape planeada. Tras la captura, fue transportado bajo una fuerte guardia a la sede británica en Nueva York. Los relatos de la época indican que Hale fue interrogado por el general británico William Howe después de su captura y que se encontraron pruebas físicas de su persona que lo incriminaban como espía. Según registros históricos, se descubrieron papeles en los zapatos de Hale & # 8217 que detallaban la información que había reunido, incluidos bocetos de fortificaciones británicas y anotaciones de números y posiciones.

Su ejecución

Los espías capturados se enfrentaban a la ejecución en la horca si eran declarados culpables de actividades de espionaje por sentencia militar. Los estándares de tiempos de guerra no requerían un juicio formal para los presuntos espías. Mientras esperaba la ejecución durante la noche, Hale solicitó una Biblia y la visita de un clérigo, pero ambas solicitudes fueron denegadas. Los registros indican que también solicitó material de escritura y escribió dos cartas personales, que fueron destruidas después de su muerte. En la mañana del 22 de septiembre de 1776, Hale enfrentó su propia ejecución. Lo llevaron por Post Road hasta el Parque de Artillería, donde esperaba la horca. Según relatos de testigos y registros de su ejecución, Hale habló elocuentemente antes de su ejecución. Según muchas versiones, Hale declaró & # 8220Sólo lamento tener una vida para dar por mi país & # 8221. Después de pronunciar sus últimas palabras, Hale fue ahorcado como castigo por espiar.

La validez de las últimas palabras de Hale permanece en duda. Si bien algunos relatos se refieren a su elocuencia antes de su ejecución, la cita real que se le atribuye proviene de una fuente secundaria. John Montresor, un soldado británico que presenció la ejecución, al parecer repitió las palabras de Hale a William Hull, un oficial estadounidense. Luego, Hull publicó la declaración de Hale # 8217 en todas las colonias. Sirvió de inspiración para muchos y personificó la dedicación de muchos patriotas de la época. Ya sea que la famosa cita sea textual y precisa o no, los momentos finales de Hale transmitieron la dedicación que sentía hacia la búsqueda de la independencia.

Aunque Nathan Hale murió a la temprana edad de 21 años, sus palabras resonaron en los esfuerzos revolucionarios y a lo largo de la historia. Su pasión y compromiso con la causa de la independencia inspiró a muchos de sus compatriotas y sirvió para motivar a muchos otros. Hale no participó en muchas acciones militares durante su breve mandato militar, pero su voluntad de asumir una misión peligrosa y su valentía frente a la ejecución le valieron un lugar en la historia de Estados Unidos como héroe martirizado de la Revolución Estadounidense.


¿Qué dijo realmente Nathan Hale?

Nathan Hale, el famoso espía estadounidense de la Guerra Revolucionaria, es famoso por decir: & # 8220 Solo lamento tener una vida para dar por mi país & # 8221 Hay & # 8217 solo un problema. Nunca lo dijo. Entonces, ¿qué dijo realmente? La respuesta está a continuación, cortesía de una entrevista con Becky Akers realizada por American Revolution y Founding Era:

& # 8220¿Qué lecciones pueden aprender los estadounidenses de alguien como Nathan Hale? & # 8221

Esa libertad es uno de los mayores dones de Dios para nosotros, más preciosa incluso que la vida.

Mucha gente confunde el sacrificio de Nathan con el nacionalismo: la mentalidad de "mi país, bien o mal". Y si bien eso es trágico, es comprensible, dada la versión deformada de su discurso en la horca que nos legó. Esa famosa frase - "Solo lamento tener una vida para dar por mi país" - en realidad se originó con el Capitán (más tarde General) William Hull, uno de los amigos de Nathan de la universidad. Escuchó un relato de la ejecución de un testigo ocular, que incluyó en sus memorias cuando era anciano. Y luego parafraseó, de manera inexacta, la cita de un informe sobre la muerte de Nathan que el Boston Chronicle publicó apenas seis años después del ahorcamiento: “Estoy tan satisfecho con la causa en la que me he comprometido, que lo único que lamento es no haber más vidas que una para ofrecer en su servicio ". Obviamente, la condensación de Hull tiene un impacto mayor, pero también cambia "causa [de la libertad]" a "país", una reescritura desafortunada y nacionalista.


Historia del Batallón Nathan Hale

La misión del ROTC es comisionar al futuro liderazgo de oficiales del Ejército de los Estados Unidos.

Filosofía

La filosofía del Departamento de Ciencias Militares de Connecticut es garantizar que los cadetes reciban la mejor preparación posible para el servicio como oficiales del ejército. Los oficiales y suboficiales del Departamento se enorgullecen del programa, y ​​se presta atención individual a cada cadete para mejorar su conocimiento militar y su capacidad de liderazgo. Se pone énfasis en la práctica individual de los principios de liderazgo.

Historia del Batallón Nathan Hale

Army ROTC es una de las instituciones establecidas más antiguas de su tipo en la nación. El entrenamiento militar se ofreció por primera vez en Connecticut en Storrs Agricultural College en 1892. El entrenamiento consistió en simulacros y fue realizado por un miembro civil de la facultad que fue designado & # 8220Commandant. & # 8221 Uno de estos instructores, Charles A. Meserve, profesor de Química y Física, inició inspecciones regulares los domingos por la mañana de los cadetes y sus habitaciones. En 1910, el Departamento de Guerra designó a un oficial activo del ejército, el primer teniente James M. Churchill, como instructor militar.

Antes de 1916, el propósito del programa era simplemente proporcionar algo de entrenamiento militar a una parte de los jóvenes de la nación. La finalización del programa no calificó a una persona para una comisión. En 1916, se estableció una unidad del Cuerpo de Entrenamiento de Oficiales de Reserva y # 8217.

En 1947, el Ejército dispuso que la ciencia militar se impartiera en la Universidad de Connecticut / Hartford Branch. En 1978 se inició la instrucción militar en la Universidad de Bridgeport. En 1985, se tomaron iniciativas para trasladar la sucursal de UConn / Hartford a la Universidad Estatal de Connecticut Central. En 1985, el Batallón de Cadetes adoptó el nombre & # 8220 The Nathan Hale Battalion. & # 8221.

Knowlton Company

Thomas Knowlton, un veterano de la guerra francesa e india y de la guerra británica con España en Cuba, organizó una empresa en Ashford para la lucha contra los británicos.

Lideró la compañía desde Connecticut hasta Massachusetts, la primera unidad de una colonia exterior que marchó a Massachusetts para ayudar con la lucha después de los incidentes de Lexington y Concord.

La Compañía de Voluntarios de Ashford se encontró en la Batalla de Bunker Hill. Rechazaron las primeras cargas británicas y cubrieron la retirada del resto de la fuerza. El Capitán Knowlton fue ascendido a Mayor en función de su desempeño aquí, y fue considerado el & # 8220primer oficial de su grado en el Ejército & # 8221.

En la primavera de 1776, se forma una Fuerza Especial de hombres de Connecticut para operaciones & # 8220speciales & # 8221, una fuerza de guardabosques. Se pide al comandante Knowlton que esté al mando y es ascendido a teniente coronel.

Al prepararse para la defensa de Nueva York, el general Washington sintió la necesidad de más inteligencia sobre las actividades británicas en la ciudad. El teniente coronel Knowlton está a cargo de la operación de inteligencia. Nathan Hale fue el voluntario que puso en marcha la operación. Fue capturado por los británicos y colgado al día siguiente de su captura. Sus palabras de ese día han quedado inmortalizadas en nuestra historia: & # 8220 Lamento no tener más que una vida para dar por mi país & # 8221.

En agosto de 1776, el teniente coronel Knowlton luchó junto a su hijo de 16 años y murió en acción en la batalla de Long Island. George Washington dijo al día siguiente: & # 8220El galante y valiente Coronel Knowlton, que habría sido un honor para cualquier país, (cayó) ayer mientras luchaba gloriosamente. & # 8221

Un monumento del teniente coronel Thomas Knowlton se encuentra actualmente en los terrenos del capitolio del estado de Connecticut.

Silliman Company

When the Revolutionary War began in the 1770s, Fairfielders were caught in the crisis as much as if not more than the rest of their neighbors in Connecticut. In a predominantly Tory section of the state, the people of Fairfield were early supporters of the cause for Independence. Throughout the war, a constant battle was being fought across Long Island Sound as men from British-controlled Long Island raided the coast in whaleboats and privateers.

Gold Selleck Silliman, whose home still stands on Jennings Road, was put in charge of the coastal defenses. In the spring of 1779, he was kidnapped from his home by Tory forces in preparation for a British raid on Fairfield County. His wife watched from their home as, on the morning of July 7, 1779, approximately 2,000 enemy troops landed on Fairfield Beach near Pine Creek Point and proceeded to invade the town.

When they left the following evening, the entire town lay in ruins, burned to the ground as punishment for Fairfield’s support of the rebel cause. Ten years later, President George Washington noted after traveling through Fairfield, that ” the destructive evidences of British cruelty are yet visible both in Norwalk and Fairfield as there are the chimneys of many burnt houses standing in them yet.”

History of Army ROTC

ROTC had its beginning in 1819 at what is now known as Norwich University. By the 1850s, military instruction on civilian college campuses had spread to other institutions. La guerra civil

highlighted the problem of training sufficient military leaders during times of crisis. This led to the Land Grant Act of 1862 which provided land and money for the establishment of additional colleges which agreed to offer courses in military tactics.

The National Defense Act of 1916 reestablished the idea of a citizen army to meet the needs of the nation’s defense. Thousands of ROTC graduates served in the First World War, providing valuable leadership and experience to an army that grew from less than 150,000 to more than one and a half million. The program was then suspended during the war but began again in 1920. The ROTC graduates from 1920 to 1940 provided the cadre of reserve officers for the Second World War.

The National Defense Act of 1916 also reorganized the Army Reserve, the Army National Guard, and the Regular Army into the Army of the United States. Officers for this expanded citizen Army were to be given military instruction in institutions under a Reserve Officer’s Training Corps. By the end of World War II, more than 118,000 ROTC officers had served their country.

In the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, ROTC provided the majority of the officers for the Army. Young officers came from all walks of life and served with distinction. ROTC graduates have attained the highest ranks in the Army and continue to provide the majority of officers for the active as well as reserve forces.

Today, ROTC provides on-campus leadership instruction at over 273 host colleges and universities, with more than 500 cross-enrolled institutions to develop college educated men and women for positions of responsibility. Army ROTC normally provides approximately 80 percent of all new lieutenants entering the active Army.


Nathan Hale - History

Nathan Hale Lodge No. 350, F. & A.M.

The end to World War II brought an influx of new Masons to Metropolitan Milwaukee. Home building was resumed and the Milwaukee suburbs grew. Damascus Lodge #290, formed in 1904, had members from throughout the metro area including many worked at south-side companies such as Kearny and Trecker. Several of those who lived in the Southwest part of Milwaukee County and nearby areas formed an informal Masonic club and discussed the extension of Freemasonry into the suburbs. This resulted in 81 Freemasons signing a petition for dispensation to form what would become Nathan Hale Lodge #350 Free and Accepted Masons.

Grand Master Walter Helwig presented the dispensation to these Masons in April 1951 at the Whitnall Park Lutheran Church in Hales Corners. At the time, Wisconsin&rsquos Masonic law required consent of a majority of Milwaukee County Lodges before the Grand Master could issue the dispensation.

Grand Master Helwig reported that these Freemason Lodges approved unanimously. Brother Bart Bastiani was elected the first Master, and Brothers Allen Phillips and Alfred Ziese were the Wardens. The membership grew to 91 by the time the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin issued its charter to Nathan Hale Lodge #350 in June 1951.

The activites of the Hales Corners church grew, and Nathan Hale Lodge was required to find another meeting place. Nathan Hale Lodge moved to Waterford and then to West Allis before they found a two-room schoolhouse at South 112th street and Cold Sprint avenue, in Greenfield, being vacated. One member, Hilbert Krause, owner of a lumber yard, donated or provided at cost most of the materials needed to renovate the building. The refreshment hall in the lower level was named in his honor. Damascus Lodge, having never owned a building of its own became one of Nathan Hale&rsquos tenants.

After making good use of this property for many years, it unfortunately became too expensive to maintain the Greenfield property and in the 1990&rsquos the decision was made to move Nathan Hale&rsquos meetings to the Wisconsin Scottish Rite&rsquos building at 790 North Van Buren Avenue in Milwaukee. The Humphrey Scottish Rite center was home to Nathan Hale Lodge and several other lodges for many years. The building became no longer sustainable for the Scottish Rite and was sold and currently undergoing renovations. In 2015 the Tripoli Shrine tripolishrine.com added a Lodge room and welcomed several area Lodges that were displaced from the Humphrey Scottish Rite Center to begin meeting there. Tripoli Shrine Center tripolishrinecenter.com at 3000 West Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee is part of the National Register of Historic Places. On November 9, 1925 the ground was broken for the current building designed after North African Moslems which were thought to best exemplify the Shrine ritual. The building features beautiful tile work, sculptures and an impressive dome which peaks at more than 100 feet. The Tripoli Shrine Center is an impressive venue available for rental to host meetings, weddings, and banquets.

Nathan Hale Lodge #350, Lafayette #265 and Freemason&rsquos Lodge #363 currently meet in the at Tripoli Shrine Center in Milwaukee. The Shrine is also home to the Tripoli Shriners, it&rsquos many units and clubs, Tripoli Ladies Auxiliary, and Daughters of the Nile.

The Children's Dyslexia Center www.cdcmilwaukee.com is also housed within Tripoli Shrine. The Dyslexia Center provides free, high-quality, multi-sensory tutorial reading and written language instruction to children with dyslexia/reading disabilities.

Our Namesake Brother Nathan Hale

On June 6, 1755 born at Coventry, Connecticut was the American patriot, Brother Nathan Hale. During battles for New York in the American Revolution he volunteered to seek military intelligence behind enemy lines and was captured on the night of September 21, 1776. Before Brithish General William Howe, Brother Hale admitted to being an American officer and was ordered hanged the following morning. His dying words reportedly were: &ldquoI only regret I have but one life to lose for my country.&rdquo He was hanged September 22, 1776, at what is now the intersection of Market Street and East Broadway in New York, New York. The martyred Brother Nathan Hale was thought to be a member of St. John&rsquos Regimental Lodge of New York City. No real proof exists of his membership. (Chases Livingston Masonic Library)


Early Years & Personal Life

The second son of Richard Hale and Elizabeth Strong Hale, Nathan Hale was born in Coventry, Connecticut. His parents were staunch Puritans, and his upbringing was that of a typical young man in New England in the 18 th century. Richard and Elizabeth sent Nathan to school, instilling in him the values of a well-rounded education, hard work, and religious piety.

When Nathan Hale was fourteen, he and his brother Enoch went off to Yale College, where they studied debate and literature. Both Nathan and Enoch were members of the secretive Linonia Society, a Yale debate club that met regularly to discuss both classical and contemporary topics. One of Nathan’s classmates at Yale was Benjamin Tallmadge. Tallmadge eventually became America’s first spymaster, organizing the Culper espionage ring at George Washington’s behest.

In 1773, Nathan Hale graduated from Yale with honors at age 18. He soon found employment as a schoolteacher in the town of East Haddon, then moved to a school in the port city of New London.


Nathan Hale

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About Capt. Nathan Hale (Continental Army)

" "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." The words Nathan Hale is said to have uttered just before being hanged as a spy by the British are among the best remembered of the Revolution. The young schoolteacher-turned-officer-turned-spy was a hero to nineteenth-century Americans, but they didn’t know what he looked like, as no contemporary likeness survived. Then two American sculptors working at the turn of the twentieth century imagined Nathan Hale in bronze statues. Their vision of the young hero—represented in three important works in the Institute’s collections—have shaped the way Americans have imagined Hale for more than a century.

"Nathan Hale was an intelligent, engaging, athletic, ambitious and dutiful schoolmaster in New London, Connecticut, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. When news of the battles of Lexington and Concord reached New London on April 22, 1775, Hale reportedly declared: “Let us march immediately and never lay down our arms until we obtain our Independence.” He joined the Seventh Connecticut Regiment of the Continental Army as a lieutenant. After several months of recruiting, training, and watching the coastline, Hale’s regiment finally received orders in September to march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was promoted to captain as the regiment settled in to the Siege of Boston.

"After the British evacuated Boston in March 1776, George Washington’s army—including the Seventh Connecticut—marched to New York to defend the city. That summer, Hale was selected for an elite company of rangers commanded by Col. Thomas Knowlton. By fall Washington had become anxious for information on the enemy’s movements. With scouting parties and citizen couriers proving to be ineffective, the general proposed that one of Knowlton’s rangers conduct one of the first American spy missions of the war. The effort required a soldier to disguise himself in civilian clothing, slip behind British lines, collect information and documents on the enemy’s next planned attack, and return to camp undetected. At a meeting, Knowlton asked for a volunteer. After a pause, Hale responded to the call.

"Hale left camp on September 12 posing as a schoolmaster looking for work. He took a circuitous path to British-held Long Island, where he gathered information on the enemy’s numbers and positions. On the night of September 21, he was discovered on his way back to the American lines and captured. He was immediately taken to Gen. William Howe’s headquarters at Mount Pleasant and, because the general found Hale carrying incriminating papers and wearing civilian clothes rather than a military uniform, Howe declared the American a spy and ordered him hanged in the morning.

"On September 22, 1776, the British marched twenty-one-year-old Nathan Hale north to their artillery park and executed him. The account of Hale’s famous last words—which were inspired by a similar line in Joseph Addison’s play Cato𠅌omes from British engineer John Montresor, who witnessed the execution. Another British officer, Lt. Frederick Mackenzie, recorded Hale’s last moments: “He behaved with great composure and resolution, saying he thought it the duty of every good Officer, to obey any orders given him by his Commander-in-Chief and desired the Spectators to be at all times prepared to meet death in whatever shape it might appear.” Later the same day, Montresor traveled to the American camp to deliver a message from Howe to Washington and told several officers of Hale’s fate. Despite Hale’s patriotic sacrifice, his story was little told in the eighteenth century—perhaps due to his mission’s embarrassing failure.

"More than a century after his execution, the first statue of Nathan Hale was dedicated in New York in 1893. The bronze statue was erected by the Sons of the Revolution in the State of New York in City Hall Park, where Hale’s execution was thought to have taken place. (The site was actually four miles away near present-day 66th Street and 3rd Avenue on the Upper East Side.) The Brooklyn-born artist Frederick MacMonnies (1863-1937) sculpted the work, which is one of the best examples of American Beaux-Arts sculpture. MacMonnies was then in the early stages of his career, having worked in the studio of renowned American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and studied at the National Academy of Design in New York and ಜole des Beaux-Arts in Paris."

Patriot of the Revolutionary War, Nathan was hung as a spy. Remembered for his oft quoted words, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." In 1985 Captain Nathan Hale was designated the official state hero of CT.

At age 14, he enrolled at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. While at Yale, he became close friends with Benjamin Tallmadge, a fellow Yale student who would later become George Washington's head of intelligence during the Revolutionary War. Hale graduated from Yale with honors and became a school teacher in nearby East Hadaam, and later in New London. When the war began, he joined the Connecticut militia and became a first sergeant. In 1776, he was promoted to captain in the Continental Army's 7th Connecticut Regiment.

In August and September of 1776, during the Battle of Long Island, Hale volunteered to spy on British troop movements. Disguised as a school teacher, he was captured by British forces near present-day Queens following the torching of New York City. British officials, suspicious of Hale's school-teacher facade, pretended to be Patriots and succeeded in convincing him to reveal his espionage (spy) activities. He was then questioned by British General William Howe. Apparently, some evidence was found on him, and he was subsequently hanged for treason the next day. According to eyewitness accounts, Hale's composure in the moments before his execution were astounding. His final words, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country," have been immortalized forever. Today, statues of Nathan Hale can be seen at the Nathan Hale Homestead, Yale University, the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.), and Andover Academy in Massachusetts.

Nathan Hale Homestead'he Nathan Hale Homestead was the home of the family of State Hero, Nathan Hale. Constructed in 1776, the current house is the second dwelling built on the property. Nathan’s father, Richard Hale, was a prosperous livestock farmer and built the house for his large family. Ardent patriots, six of Richard’s eight sons served in the patriot army. One son, Capt. Nathan Hale was caught and hanged as a spy at age 21 by the British in September of 1776. He is famous for his alleged last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” Following the American Revolution, three Hale sons died from wounds received in the war. Their widows and children moved to the family homestead, so that an average of 12-20 people lived in the house at any one time.

The Homestead is a pristine example of a Georgian-style home. Although sold out of the Hale family in the 1820s, the house has remained virtually intact. The house was first restored by George Dudley Seymour, who saved the house in the early 20th century. Recent paint analysis has resulted in the repainting of the house interior in historic colors. The house is furnished with Hale-family pieces and period antiques and is based on the family inventories. The house was deeded to Connecticut Landmarks in the 1940s. Much of the acreage associated with the Hale farm, is now the Nathan Hale State Forest.

A statue of Nathan Hale stands proudly in front of Tribune Tower, a memorial to one of a America's heroes, a true patriot.

Captain Nathan Hale (1755 - 1776)

On a September morning in 1776 a 21-year old American captain faced the most trying moment of his young life. He was shortly to die -- and to die the death of a criminal, of a traitor -- he was to hang, convicted without benefit of a trial. We cannot know the thoughts of this soldier in the last moments of his young life, but his behavior and legendary last words catapulted him to the pantheon of American heroes. “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country,” Fourteen words and the life of Captain Nathan Hale ended and his reputation as the Martyr-Spy of the American Revolution began.

Nathan Hale was born on June 6, 1755, in Coventry, Connecticut, to Richard Hale, a prosperous farmer, untiring patriot and church deacon, and his wife, Elizabeth Strong Hale. Nathan was the sixth child, one of nine sons and three daughters, ten of whom survived to adulthood. Nathan’s mother did survive the birth of her twelfth child, but only by a few months, leaving Nathan motherless at age 12. With young children to raise and a large farm to manage, Deacon Richard Hale remarried two years later to a wealthy widow from Canterbury, Abigail Cobb Adams.

Little detail is known about Nathan’s childhood but he certainly would have helped with the many farm and household chores and spent many happy hours hunting, fishing, and �thing” in the nearby lake. His fowling piece hangs in the family home today. Sundays were spent in church, morning and afternoon. Another treasured item at the Homestead is Nathan’s Bible, signed by him, with a few verses marked: “In my father’s house are many mansions and I go to prepare a place for you,” a famous passage. Nathan and his brother Enoch were prepared for Yale by the well-known Congregational divine, the Rev. Dr. Joseph Huntington. School was the local minister’s home, two miles away the curriculum was Latin, Greek, Hebrew, penmanship, among other subjects.

In 1769, at age 14 Nathan had demonstrated sufficient knowledge of the classics in addition to New Testament Greek and set off with Enoch for Yale College in New Haven. The boys lodged in Connecticut Hall, the only Yale building now standing that Nathan knew his statue stands in front of it today.

Dubbed “Hale Secundus,” (Enoch being “Primus”) Nathan was a good student who also enjoyed the sports of the day. Legend has it that his record for the broad-jump held till some years after his death. In his second year, Nathan was elected to a secret literary fraternity known as Linonia for which he was scribe, librarian, and finally president. He was apparently a popular and respected student though not perfectly well behaved. His quarterly bills indicate that he was charged for broken window glass and other damages, and he was once fined four shillings as “Punishment.” Nathan was active in debating and dramatic productions and organized the fraternity’s library, even donating a copy of “The Travels of Cyrus” and “the Spectator” to the collection.

Letters from Deacon Hale to his sons during their years at Yale are much the same as letters from parents are today: all relate to money, clothes and behavior. “I hope you will carefully mind your studies that your time be not Lost and that you will mind all the orders of College with care and be sure above all forget not to Learne Christ while you are busy in other studies,” Deacon Hale writes a few months after their arrival. “Shun all vice especially card playing,” he writes a year later. “Read your Bibles a chapter night and morning. I cannot now send you much money…”

Hale did not graduate first in his class but he was among the better scholars, graduating with 35 other young men on September 8, 1773. One of the day’s highlights was a forensic debate in which Hale and others argued the then pertinent question, “Whether the Education of Daughters Be Not, Without Any Just Reason, More Neglected Than That of Sons.” Tradition has it that Nathan took the side of the girls and won.

After graduation, Nathan journeyed to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, to visit his uncle, Major Samuel Hale, a Harvard graduate, and headmaster of a well-known Latin School there, probably seeking career advice. That fall he embarked on a teaching career in East Haddam, Connecticut., in a schoolhouse that still stands today. He was well-liked but at 18 years old probably lonely for friends and entertainment in the remote town. 𠇎verybody loved him,” said Hannah Pierson of Nathan during his stay there. “He was so sprightly, intelligent, and kind and so handsome.” It is during this time however that Nathan may have found love, albeit perhaps briefly. A few lines of doggeral written by him to an unnamed person speak of a special friendship:

I trust, our Friendship though begun of late,

Hath been no less sincere, than intimate.

O f this I’m sure I’ve not as yet regretted,

That to your Company I’ve been admitted.

After five months in Haddam Landing, Nathan applied and was accepted as headmaster of the Latin School in New London. “I love my employment find many friends among strangers have time for scientific study,” writes Nathan of his new position. “ My school is by no means difficult to take care of. It consists of about 30 scholars ten of whom are Latiners (college bound) and all but six of the rest are writers. ”

Nathan was a popular teacher among the students though controversial among some adults. For one thing Nathan believed in giving rewards and praise to students who had worked hard—not a universally accepted idea at the time. But even more radical, Nathan admitted girls to the secondary school. Of course the young women who wanted a higher education had to come to school at 5 in the morning before the boys arrived.

Recalled one of his students: “Scholars old and young (were) exceedingly attached to him respected highly by all his acquaintance fine moral character. Face full of intelligence and benevolence manners mild and genteel.”

By all accounts Hale was very good-looking and his female students may have found this to be an added motivation for attending school at that early hour. “Why all the girls in New Haven fell in love with him and wept tears of real sorrow when they heard of his fate,” remembered one of his early admirers.

Hale’s athleticism was probably a big hit with his male students. Recalled one: “He (Nathan) would jump from the bottom of one hogshead up and down into a second and from the second up and down into a third like a cat. He used to perform this feat often He would also put his hand on a fence high as his head and jump over it.”

In the 18th century, teaching was usually a stepping-stone to the Congregational ministry but it is not known what Nathan’s plans were. It is also during this period that Nathan kept up quite a correspondence with Yale classmates, their letters full of news of friends, jobs, romances, and politics.

When the news from Lexington and Concord reached New London in 1775, Nathan decided to give up teaching and join the army. His speech in favor of rebellion at a town meeting inspired many to join the army. Nathan applied to the Connecticut General Assembly for a lieutenancy and received it. From August to September 14, Hale was stationed in New London. His company reached the American camp at Roxbury, Mass., at the end of September 1775.

Duty outside Boston in 1775 turned out to be pretty boring for many of the young soldiers. They were engaged in a holding action, a stalemate, with the British occupying the city and the Americans surrounding them. Nathan’s diary from this period indicates he spent a lot of time reading about how to be an effective officer. “It is of the utmost importance that an Officer should be anxious to know his duty, but of greater that he should carefully perform what he does know: The present irregular state of the army is owing to a capital neglect in both of these,” he writes in his diary.

He also drilled his men, played football and other games, and visited with friends. 𠇌lean𠆝 my gun—pld some football, & some chequers.” And on another day 𠇍ine at Brown (Tavern), drink 1 bottle (of) wine…walk𠆝 about street, called at Josh. Woodbridge’s.” But life as an officer certainly tested one’s commitment to the cause: “Promised the men if they would tarry another month they should have my wages for that time,” writes Nathan toward the end of 1775. By the time Boston was evacuated in March of 1776, Nathan had been promoted to captain. Nathan may also have begun to make contacts for his future occupation as spy, but this has not been proven from the known surviving letters or diaries. In March 1776 the British finally left for Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Washington, thinking they were off to occupy New York, sent most of his troops there. Nathan and his men arrived is New York City on April 30 and while stationed there, Nathan went on one or more trips through Long Island. This may be inferred from letters and diaries, but his whereabouts and purpose of his activities are unknown.

In July 1776 the British landed on Staten Island, unopposed, and on August 27 they defeated the Americans at the Battle of Long Island. Nathan’s regiment was not directly involved in the fighting but may have played a role in ferrying the Americans back across the East River to New York after this defeat. On August 29, all American troops had been evacuated to Manhattan. Soon afterwards, Hale was detached for service and in September he was sent on his spying mission, back behind British lines on Long Island.

Nathan became one of four captains in the select regiment known as Knowlton’s Rangers, formed after the defeat at Long Island, probably for the purpose of reconnaissance and forward action. This still remains one of the jobs of the Rangers today—getting information from behind the enemy lines. After the Battle of Long Island, it was only a matter of time before the British would make an assault on New York Island (as Manhattan was then known), and with autumn coming on, the sooner it could be captured, the better, if a winter haven was to be secured.

The American’s main object then, was to make it as difficult as possible for the British, and despite official reports to the contrary, to burn the city at the last possible moment in order to made it uninhabitable. A delay would also allow Washington to assemble a network of undercover agents who could later report on British activities once the Americans had withdrawn from the area. Such a network was in fact in place by the time the British took over New York.

We don’t know what Knowlton’s Rangers were instructed to find out in late summer of 1776, nor do we know what they accomplished, but New York was a spy center at that time. “The Rebels have good intelligence of what we are doing……” wrote one British officer. For obvious reasons, records of covert actions were not kept, and the secret agents’ names are mainly unknown even to this day. Nor do we know what Nathan was expected to do on Long Island or if he accomplished anything.

The date 1776 on the seal of the Army's intelligence service today refers to the formation of Knowlton's Rangers.

We do know that Washington was justifiably concerned with the British recruitment of American Loyalists at this time, a recruitment that was in high gear all along the coast of Long Island Sound in the spring and summer of 1776. Had the British done a better job mobilizing American sympathizers, the Patriots might well have lost the war. Nathan’s letter to brother Enoch during this time underscores the feelings of many patriots:

“It would grieve every good man to consider what unnatural monsters we have as it were in our bowels. Numbers in this Colony, and likewise in the western part of Connecticut, would be glad to imbrue their hands in their country’s Blood. Facts render this too evident to admit of dispute. In this city such as refuse to sign the Association have been required to deliver up their arms. Several who refused to comply have been sent to prison. It is really a critical Period. America beholds what she never did before. Allow the whole force of our enemy to be but 30,000, and these floating on the Ocean, ready to attack the most unguarded place. Are they not a formidable Foe? Surely they are.”

Little is known about Nathan Hale’s work as an undercover agent. His missions, his whereabouts, his experiences are only dimly understood. This uncertainty has made him a popular subject with writers of historical fiction, who thus feel free to add their own details. Contemporary newspaper accounts are contradictory. The memories of his colleagues about what happened, mostly recorded decades later, are of uncertain value. Hale compounded the problems because he stopped writing a detailed diary. Even the Army order books are vague.

According to a friend and schoolmate of Nathan’s, William Hull, Nathan debated about whether to go on a covert mission in August of 1776. William, who later became a General, reported a number of years after the Revolution that he had tried to dissuade Nathan from accepting his last spying mission. He told Nathan that being a spy was dishonorable in the eyes of the world and to be caught meant certain and inglorious death. Even success would not bring honor, William reasoned. Nathan argued back and finally concluded: ‘I wish to be useful, and every kind of service, necessary to the public good, becomes honorable by being necessary.”

According to the best evidence, Nathan left the American camp at Harlem Heights, New York, around 10 September 1776 for Norwalk, Connecticut, where he was ferried across the Sound to enemy-held Long Island taking with him his college diploma. Hale had performed reconnaissance on Long Island before it had fallen to the British, and he likely had established contacts in the heavily Loyalist towns there. On 21 September he was arrested as a spy, probably in the vicinity of present-day LaGuardia Airport and taken to British headquarters in Manhattan. He was ordered executed the next morning.

At the gallows, in front of 𠇊rtillery Park” (present-day Third Avenue at 66th Street), Hale made a sensible and spirited speech,” among others things making a perfectly apt reference to a famous play by Joseph Addison about giving up one’s life for liberty. His body was left hanging for a period of days as a warning to the rebels and was thrown into an unmarked grave.

Two last letters written by him to his beloved brother Enoch and his commanding officer, Lt. Col. Knowlton were lost or destroyed after his death along with his Yale diploma.

Why, many scholars have wondered, would a spy carry his own identity papers?

Of course, carrying his diploma would have been a useful credential in his 𠇌over” as a schoolmaster among Long Island Loyalists. But there may have been more to it than that. To prove a person was a spy, it was usually necessary to show that he or she had been going under an assumed identity. Such, in any event, was the basis of cases against other accused spies at the time. Thus, Nathan Hale agreed to spy but not to lie, and this may have been his specific instruction. Further evidence supporting this theory is that when Nathan was caught, he made no attempt to lie about who he was or what he had been doing. Perhaps this was his own moral scruples at work, but it may also have been judged by his commanding officers to be the wisest course of action.

According to an early newspaper account, Nathan was betrayed to the British by his first cousin, a Loyalist from Newburyport, Mass., Samuel Hale who was on Long Island at the time. Nathan’s boyhood friend and army orderly Asher Wright in his 82nd year dictated his story and talked of Nathan “Some say his cousin, Samuel Hale, a tory, betrayed him, I don’t know guess he did.”

Stephen Hempstead, a friend from Nathan’s New London days, echoes the same theme. “He was met in the crowd by a fellow-countryman, and an own relation (but a tory and a renegado) who had received the hospitality of ths board, and the attention of a brother from Captain Hale, at His quarters at Winter Hill, in Cambridge, the winter before. He recognized him, and most inhumanely and infamously betrayed him…”

Both men were of sterling character and were close to Nathan. However, their stories were told in their much later years and Hempstead’s contains some factual errors. Neither were eye-witnesses to any part of Hale’s mission or execution.

After the war, Samuel firmly denied any part in Nathan’s death. �pend upon it there never was the least truth in that infamous newspaper publication chargeing me with ingratitude, &c. I am happy that they have had recourse to falsehood to vilify my character. Attachment tp the old Constitution of my country is my only crime with them…” Nathan’s father disbelieved the newspaper account, though he assumed his son had been pointed out to British by someone. �tra𠆝 he doutless wass by somebody…” Since Nathan carried his own diploma, however, a villain need not have been involved. Still, the story of the betrayal has found acceptance among many writers and makes for an interesting subplot.

Not only are we unsure of the circumstances of Nathan’s capture we don’t even know where he was caught whether on Long Island or in New York or by whom. British accounts are the most credible but the information is sketchy. One contemporary account mentions Hale as being caught on Long Island by Major Robert Rogers, hero of the French & Indian War, turned Loyalist recruiter on and off Long Island at the time.

We do know for sure that he was hanged without benefit of trial the morning after his capture, on September 22, 1776, in what is today mid-town Manhattan, a short distance from the American lines. As was the custom, he was left hanging for several days as a warning to the Americans and buried in an unmarked grave that has never been located. The fact that the event was noticed at all is remarkable considering other events: the burning of New York City and the Battle of Harlem Heights.

Just as Nathan was being arrested, the American patriots were engaged in a serious of maneuvers that materially helped their cause: the movement of American troops up the east side of Manhattan and the burning of New York City—located at the lower tip of the island. A decisive victory for the Americans, a skirmish known as the Battle of Harlem Heights, in which Nathan’s commander officer, Thomas Knowlton was killed and several of Nathan’s own brothers were engaged, had just taken place, on September 16.

Soon after his death, rumors about Nathan must have circulated through the American camp, but no American letters or other documents written in New York at the time survive. The only contemporary accounts are very brief and were written by British soldiers. It wasn’t until some time later that Nathan’s brother Enoch came to New York to investigate the rumor that had reached Coventry concerning Nathan’s execution. Luckily, Enoch kept a diary.

“September 30. Hear a rumour t(hat) Capt Hale belonging the east side Connecticut river near Colchester who was educated at College was seed to hang on t(he) enemies lines at N York being taken as a spy –or reconnoitring t(heir) camp—hope it is without foundation—something troubled at it sleep not ver y well.”

“October 14 – Accounts from my brother t(he) Capt are indeed melancholly!—That about the 2d week of Sept. he went to Stanford crossed to long Island(Doct Waldo writes) & had fin(sished) his plan but before he could get off was betrayed taken & hanged without ceremony! Tis said by his counsin Sam Hale! Some entertain hope that all this is not ture but it is a gloomy dejected hop. Time may determine. Conclude to go to (the) Camp next week.”

In response to Nathan’s death, an aide of Washington spoke of retribution, and early news accounts tried to fire up support for the American cause by blaming the loyalist cousin Samuel for the betrayal. Nathan’s grief-stricken family erected a cenotaph in the Coventry cemetery with the inscription “He resigned his life 𠄺 sacrifice to his country’s liberty at New York, Sept. 1776


Ver el vídeo: NYC Great Fire of 1776 and Nathan Hale (Mayo 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Eugenio

    no te has equivocado, solo

  2. Daitaur

    Eso fue mi culpa.

  3. Yedidyah

    La excelente y debidamente respuesta.

  4. Mooguzragore

    Te pido disculpas, pero, en mi opinión, no tienes razón. Escríbeme por MP.



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